Element/Ca, C and O isotope ratios in modern brachiopods: Species-specific signals of biomineralization
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reason for embargo
Fossil brachiopods are of major importance for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions, particularly of the Paleozoic. In order to better understand signals of ancient shell materials, modern analogue studies have to be conducted. Here we present C and O isotope data in conjunction with Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data for nine modern rhynchonellid and terebratulid brachiopod species from tropical to intermediate latitudes and shallow to very deep marine settings. C and O isotope signals of most species suggest formation of secondary shell layers near or in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. Some species – especially in the suborder Terebratellidina – show partly distinct disequilibrium signals, suggesting some degree of phylogenetic control on the expression of vital effects. Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios measured in the modern species form a baseline to assess fossil preservation, but also yield environmental information. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios follow previously observed patterns, with all studied brachiopod species comprising low-Mg calcite. Strong covariation of Sr/Ca ratios with Mg/Ca ratios is only observed in rhynchonellids and possibly one terebratulid species, potentially linking the incorporation behaviour of alkaline earth metals to phylogeny. Sr/Ca show a strong negative correlation with δ13C values in terebratellidinid species which exhibit major isotopic disequilibrium and also combined data from three localities for which two species were studied indicate such a negative relation. The observed covariation of Sr/Ca ratios with δ13C values may therefore become a useful tool to detect δ13C disequilibrium and to robustly estimate δ13C values of ambient DIC in deep time.
The authors acknowledge comments from two anonymous reviewers and Alberto Pérez-Huerta as well as the editor Michael E. Boettcher which helped to improve the quality and clarity of the manuscript. The authors thank the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin for providing brachiopod specimens of the species F. sanguinolenta (ZMB Bra 1934), M. venosa (ZMB Bra 2028), N. nigricans (ZMB Bra 2441), S. crosnieri (ZMB Bra 2442), C. inconspicua (ZMB Bra 2443), C. racovitzae (ZMB Bra 2444) and L. neozelanica (ZMB Bra 2445) and Andy Gale for providing specimens of T. transversa and Terebratulina sp. The authors are indebted to the crews of RV SONNE during the cruises SO 168 ZEALANDIA and SO 233 WALVIS 2 and their respective shipboard scientific parties. Financial support by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the project SO 168 ZEALANDIA (FKZ: 03G0168) and SO 233 WALVIS 2 (FKZ: 03G0233A) to CL is gratefully acknowledged. CVU acknowledges funding from the Leopoldina – German National Academy of Sciences (grant no. LPDS 2014-08).
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 460, 5 June 2017, pp. 15-24