Cost-effective River Water Quality Management using Integrated Real-Time Control Technology
Environmental Science & Technology
American Chemical Society
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License (http://pubs.acs.org/page/policy/authorchoice_ccby_termsofuse.html), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
Integrated real-time control (RTC) of urban wastewater systems is increasingly presented as a promising and emerging strategy to deliver improved surface water quality by responsive operation according to real-time data collected from the sewer system, treatment plant and the receiving water. However, the detailed benefits and costs associated with integrated RTC have yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Built on state-of-the-art modelling and analytical tools, a three-step framework is proposed to develop integrated RTC strategies which cost-effectively maximize environmental outcomes. Results from a case study show integrated RTC can improve river quality by over 20% to meet the “good status” requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive with a 15% reduced cost, due to responsive aeration with changing environmental assimilation capacity. The cost-effectiveness of integrated RTC strategies is further demonstrated against tightening environmental standards (to the strictest levels) and against two commonly used compliance strategies. Compared to current practices (seasonal/monthly based operation), integrated RTC strategies can reduce costs whilst improving resilience of the system to disturbances and reducing environmental risk.
The authors would like to thank the financial support from the SANITAS project (EU FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network – ITN – 289193), data provision for the case study from North Wyke Farm, and support from the Building Resilience into Risk Management project (EP/N010329/1) and the third author’s Safe & SuRe research fellowship (EP/K006924/1) both funded by the UK EPSRC.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from American Chemical Society via the DOI in this record.
Published online 7 August 2017