Shifting baseline syndrome: causes, consequences and implications
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Ecological Society of America
© The Ecological Society of America.
With ongoing environmental degradation at local, regional, and global scales, people's accepted thresholds for environmental conditions are continually being lowered. In the absence of past information or experience with historical conditions, members of each new generation accept the situation in which they were raised as being normal. This psychological and sociological phenomenon is termed shifting baseline syndrome (SBS), which is increasingly recognized as one of the fundamental obstacles to addressing a wide range of today's global environmental issues. Yet our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete. We provide an overview of the nature and extent of SBS and propose a conceptual framework for understanding its causes, consequences, and implications. We suggest that there are several self‐reinforcing feedback loops that allow the consequences of SBS to further accelerate SBS through progressive environmental degradation. Such negative implications highlight the urgent need to dedicate considerable effort to preventing and ultimately reversing SBS.
MS was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (grant no. 16K00631), and KJG by the Natural Environment Research Council (grant no. NE/J015237/1).
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via the DOI in this record.
Published online 4 April 2018.