Acoustoelectric Properties of Graphene and Graphene Nanostructures
Thesis or dissertation
University of Exeter
The acoustoelectric effect in graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on lithium niobate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices was studied experimentally. Monolayer graphene produced by chemical vapour deposition was transferred to the SAW devices. The photoresponse of the acoustoelectric current (Iae) was characterised as a function of SAW frequency and intensity, and illumination wavelength (using 450 nm and 735 nm LEDs) and intensity. Under illumination, the measured Iae increased by more than the measured decrease in conductivity, while retaining a linear dependence on SAW intensity. The latter is consistent with the piezoelectric interaction between the graphene charge carriers and the SAWs being described by a relatively simple classical relaxation model. A larger increase in Iae under an illumination wavelength of 450 nm, compared to 735 nm at the same intensity, is consistent with the generation of a hot carrier distribution. The same classical relaxation model was found to describe Iae generated in arrays of 500 nm-wide GNRs. The measured acoustoelectric current decreases as the nanoribbon width increases, as studied for GNRs with widths in the range 200 – 600 nm. This reflects an increase in charge carrier mobility due to increased doping, arising from damage induced at the nanoribbon edges during fabrication. 2 Lastly, the acoustoelectric photoresponse was studied as a function of graphene nanoribbon width (350 – 600 nm) under an illumination wavelength of 450 nm. Under illumination, the nanoribbon conductivity decreased, with the largest percentage decrease seen in the widest GNRs. Iae also decreased under illumination, in contrast to the acoustoelectric photoresponse of continuous graphene. A possible explanation is that hot carrier effects under illumination lead to a greater decrease in charge carrier mobility than the increase in acoustoelectric attenuation coefficient. This causes the measured decrease in Iae.
Nash, Geoffrey Richard
PhD in Engineering