An isoparametric approach to high-order curvilinear boundary-layer meshing
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
(c) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
The generation of high-order curvilinear meshes for complex three-dimensional geometries is presently a challenging topic, particularly for meshes used in simulations at high Reynolds numbers where a thin boundary layer exists near walls and elements are highly stretched in the direction normal to flow. In this paper, we present a conceptually simple but very effective and modular method to address this issue. We propose an isoparametric approach, whereby a mesh containing a valid coarse discretization comprising of high-order triangular prisms near walls is refined to obtain a finer prismatic or tetrahedral boundary-layer mesh. The validity of the prismatic mesh provides a suitable mapping that allows one to obtain very fine mesh resolutions across the thickness of the boundary layer. We describe the method in detail for a high-order approximation using modal basis functions, discuss the requirements for the splitting method to produce valid prismatic and tetrahedral meshes and provide a sufficient criterion of validity in both cases. By considering two complex aeronautical configurations, we demonstrate how highly stretched meshes with sufficient resolution within the laminar sublayer can be generated to enable the simulation of flows with Reynolds numbers of 106 and above.
This work was partly supported by EU Grant No. 265780 as part of the EU FP7 project “IDIHOM: Industrialization of High-Order Methods — A Top-Down Approach”. We would like to thank Dr. Tobias Leicht of DLR for asking a very pertinent question concerning the validity of the generated high-order mesh that we believe to have answered in this article. We also thank Jean-Eloi Lombard for his assistance in generating the mesh for Fig. 15.
This is the final version of the article. Available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 283, pp. 636 - 650