A novel rat CVB1-VP1 monoclonal antibody 3A6 detects a broad range of enteroviruses
© The Author(s) 2017. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Enteroviruses (EVs) are common RNA viruses that cause diseases ranging from rash to paralytic poliomyelitis. For example, EV-A and EV-C viruses cause hand-foot and mouth disease and EV-B viruses cause encephalitis and myocarditis, which can result in severe morbidity and mortality. While new vaccines and treatments for EVs are under development, methods for studying and diagnosing EV infections are still limited and therefore new diagnostic tools are required. Our aim was to produce and characterize new antibodies that work in multiple applications and detect EVs in tissues and in vitro. Rats were immunized with Coxsackievirus B1 capsid protein VP1 and hybridomas were produced. Hybridoma clones were selected based on their reactivity in different immunoassays. The most promising clone, 3A6, was characterized and it performed well in multiple techniques including ELISA, immunoelectron microscopy, immunocyto- and histochemistry and in Western blotting, detecting EVs in infected cells and tissues. It recognized several EV-Bs and also the EV-C representative Poliovirus 3, making it a broad-spectrum EV specific antibody. The 3A6 rat monoclonal antibody can help to overcome some of the challenges faced with commonly used EV antibodies: it enables simultaneous use of mouse-derived antibodies in double staining and it is useful in murine models.
This study was supported by TEKES – the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation (project THERDIAB 1843/31/2014) as well as JDRF grants for the nPOD-Virus Group, JDRF 25-2012-516 to A. Pugliese and JDRF 25-2012-770 to M.A. Atkinson for the nPOD-Virus Group, the Diabetes Research Foundation in Finland, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Reino Lahtikari Foundation, the Academy of Finland and the European Commission (Persistent Virus Infection in Diabetes Network (PEVNET), Frame Programme 7, Contract No. 261441) and the Swedish Child Diabetes Research Foundation. Additional support was given by a Diabetes Research Wellness Foundation Non-Clinical Research Fellowship and, since 2014, a JDRF Career Development Award (5-CDA-2014-221-A-N) to S.J.R.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Springer Nature via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 8, article 33