Trophic redundancy reduces vulnerability to extinction cascades
Van Veen, FJF
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Abstract. Current species extinction rates are at unprecedentedly high levels. While human activities can be the direct cause of some extinctions, it is becoming increasingly clear that species extinctions themselves can be the cause of further extinctions, since species affect each other through the network of ecological interactions among them. There is concern that the simplification of ecosystems, due to the loss of species and ecological interactions, increases their vulnerability to such secondary extinctions. It is predicted that more complex food webs will be less vulnerable to secondary extinctions due to greater trophic redundancy that can buffer against the effects of species loss. Here we demonstrate in a field experiment with replicated plant-insect communities, that the probability of secondary extinctions is indeed smaller in food webs that include trophic redundancy. Harvesting one species of parasitoid wasp led to secondary extinctions of other, indirectly linked, species at the same trophic level. This effect was markedly stronger in simple communities than for the same species within a more complex food web. We show that this is due to functional redundancy in the more complex food webs and confirm this mechanism with a food web simulation model by highlighting the importance of the presence and strength of trophic links providing redundancy to those links that were lost. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity loss, leading to a reduction in redundant interactions can increase the vulnerability of ecosystems to secondary extinctions which, when they occur, can then lead to further simplification and run-away extinction cascades.
The research leading to this paper was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC grant NE/K005650/1) to F.J.F.v.V.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from National Academy of Sciences via the DOI in this record.
Published online 21 February 2018.