Developing the next generation of graphene-based platforms for cancer therapeutics: The potential role of reactive oxygen species.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/).
Graphene has a promising future in applications such as disease diagnosis, cancer therapy, drug/gene delivery, bio-imaging and antibacterial approaches owing to graphene's unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties alongside minimal toxicity to normal cells, and photo-stability. However, these unique features and bioavailability of graphene are fraught with uncertainties and concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in the physicochemical properties of graphene affect biological responses including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Lower production of ROS by currently available theranostic agents, e.g. magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanostructures or polymeric nanoparticles, restricts their clinical application in cancer therapy. Oxidative stress induced by graphene accumulated in living organs is due to acellular factors which may affect physiological interactions between graphene and target tissues and cells. Acellular factors include particle size, shape, surface charge, surface containing functional groups, and light activation. Cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, graphene-cell interactions and pH of the medium are also determinants of ROS production. The mechanisms of ROS production by graphene and the role of ROS for cancer treatment, are poorly understood. The aim of this review is to set the theoretical basis for further research in developing graphene-based theranostic platforms.
The authors would like to thank the EPSRC CDT in Metamaterials (Grant No. EP/L015331/1 G930207) University of Exeter, United Kingdom, for supporting this work.
This is the final version of the article. Available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 15, pp. 34 - 40
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