Evolutionary genetics of personality in the Trinidadian guppy II: Sexual dimorphism and genotype-by-sex interactions (article)
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Sexual dimorphism in behaviour and personality have been identified in a number of species, but few studies have assessed the extent of shared genetic architecture across the sexes. Under sexually antagonistic selection, mechanisms are expected to evolve that reduce evolutionary conflict, resulting in genotype-by-sex (GxS) interactions. Here, we assess the extent of sexual dimorphism in four risk-taking behaviour traits in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, and apply a multivariate approach to test for GxS interactions. We also quantify the among-individual and genetic covariances between personality and size and growth which are known a priori to differ between the sexes. We found significant sexual dimorphism in three of the four behaviours, although rmf between sex-specific homologous traits was significantly less than +1 for only one behaviour. Using multivariate models, we then estimated sex-specific genetic (co)variance matrices (Gm and Gf) and tested for asymmetry of the cross-trait cross-sex genetic covariance structure (submatrix B). While Gm and Gf were not significantly different from each other overall, their respective leading eigen vectors were poorly aligned. Statistical support for asymmetry in B was found, but limited to a single trait pair for which the cross-sex covariances differed (i.e. COVA(m,f) ≠ COVA(f,m)). Thus, while single- and multi-trait perspectives evidence some GxS, the overall picture is one of similarity between the sexes in their genetic (co)variance structures. Our results suggest behavioural traits related to risk-taking may lack the sex-specific genetic architecture for further dimorphism to evolve under what is hypothesised to be antagonistic selection.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Nature Publishing Group via the DOI in this record. Accompanying data available at: https://doi.org/10.24378/exe.224 via the link in this record
Published online 23 May 2018