Combined impacts of elevated CO2 and anthropogenic noise on European sea bass
Poulton, Danielle A.
Porteus, Cosima S.
ICES Journal of Marine Science
Oxford University Press
© International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2016. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ocean acidification (OA) and anthropogenic noise are both known to cause stress and induce physiological and behavioural changes in fish, with consequences for fitness. OA is also predicted to reduce the ocean's capacity to absorb low-frequency sounds produced by human activity. Consequently, anthropogenic noise could propagate further under an increasingly acidic ocean. For the first time, this study investigated the independent and combined impacts of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and anthropogenic noise on the behaviour of a marine fish, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In a fully factorial experiment crossing two CO2 levels (current day and elevated) with two noise conditions (ambient and pile driving), D. labrax were exposed to four CO2/noise treatment combinations: 400 µatm/ambient, 1000 µatm/ambient, 400 µatm/pile-driving, and 1000 µatm/pile-driving. Pile-driving noise increased ventilation rate (indicating stress) compared with ambient noise conditions. Elevated CO2 did not alter the ventilation rate response to noise. Furthermore, there was no interaction effect between elevated CO2 and pile-driving noise, suggesting that OA is unlikely to influence startle or ventilatory responses of fish to anthropogenic noise. However, effective management of anthropogenic noise could reduce fish stress, which may improve resilience to future stressors.
This study was supported by an NERC KE Fellowship (S.D.S.; NE/J500616/2); with additional support from a Royal Society Newton International Fellowship to C.S.P., who is also a beneficiary of a Starting Grant from AXA.
This is the final version of the article. Available from OUP via the DOI in this record.
There is another record in ORE for this publication: http://hdl.handle.net/10871/19871
Vol. 74 (4), pp. 1230-1236