A Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score can identify patients with GAD65 autoantibody positive type 2 diabetes that rapidly progress to insulin therapy
Grubb, A; McDonald, T; Rutters, F; et al.Donnelly, L; Hattersley, A; Oram, R; Palmer, C; van der Heijden, A; Carr, F; Elders, P; Weedon, M; Slieker, RC; t' Hart, L; Pearson, E; Shields, B; Jones, AG
Date: 23 October 2018
American Diabetes Association
Objective Progression to insulin therapy in clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes is highly variable. GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are associated with faster progression, but their predictive value is limited. We aimed to determine if a Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score (T1DGRS) could predict rapid progression to insulin treatment over ...
Objective Progression to insulin therapy in clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes is highly variable. GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are associated with faster progression, but their predictive value is limited. We aimed to determine if a Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score (T1DGRS) could predict rapid progression to insulin treatment over and above GADA testing. Research Design and Methods We examined the relationship between T1DGRS, GADA (negative or positive) and rapid insulin requirement (within 5 years) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression in 8,608 participants with clinical type 2 diabetes (onset >35 years, treated without insulin for ≥6 months). T1DGRS was analyzed both continuously (as standardized scores) and categorized based on previously reported centiles of a type 1 diabetes population (<5th (low), 5th-50th (medium), >50th (high)). Results In GADA positive participants (3.3%), those with higher T1DGRS progressed to insulin more quickly: Probability of insulin requirement at five years [95% CI]: 47.9%[35.0%,62.78%] (high T1DGRS) vs 27.6%[20.5%,36.5%] (medium T1DGRS) vs 17.6%[11.2%,27.2%] (low T1DGRS), p=0.001. In contrast T1DGRS did not predict rapid insulin requirement in GADA negative participants (p=0.4). In Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age of diagnosis, BMI and cohort, T1DGRS was independently associated with time to insulin only in the presence of GADA: hazard ratio per SD increase 1.48 (1.15,1.90), p=0.002. Conclusions A Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score alters the clinical implications of a positive GADA test in patients with clinical type 2 diabetes, and is independent of and additive to clinical features.
Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science
College of Medicine and Health
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