Featured Anomaly Detection Methods and Applications
Date: 20 June 2018
University of Exeter
PhD in Computer Science
Anomaly detection is a fundamental research topic that has been widely investigated. From critical industrial systems, e.g., network intrusion detection systems, to people’s daily activities, e.g., mobile fraud detection, anomaly detection has become the very first vital resort to protect and secure public and personal properties. ...
Anomaly detection is a fundamental research topic that has been widely investigated. From critical industrial systems, e.g., network intrusion detection systems, to people’s daily activities, e.g., mobile fraud detection, anomaly detection has become the very first vital resort to protect and secure public and personal properties. Although anomaly detection methods have been under consistent development over the years, the explosive growth of data volume and the continued dramatic variation of data patterns pose great challenges on the anomaly detection systems and are fuelling the great demand of introducing more intelligent anomaly detection methods with distinct characteristics to cope with various needs. To this end, this thesis starts with presenting a thorough review of existing anomaly detection strategies and methods. The advantageous and disadvantageous of the strategies and methods are elaborated. Afterward, four distinctive anomaly detection methods, especially for time series, are proposed in this work aiming at resolving specific needs of anomaly detection under different scenarios, e.g., enhanced accuracy, interpretable results, and self-evolving models. Experiments are presented and analysed to offer a better understanding of the performance of the methods and their distinct features. To be more specific, the abstracts of the key contents in this thesis are listed as follows: 1) Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) is investigated as a primary method to fulfill accurate anomaly detection. The applicability of SVDD over noisy time series datasets is carefully examined and it is demonstrated that relaxing the decision boundary of SVDD always results in better accuracy in network time series anomaly detection. Theoretical analysis of the parameter utilised in the model is also presented to ensure the validity of the relaxation of the decision boundary. 2) To support a clear explanation of the detected time series anomalies, i.e., anomaly interpretation, the periodic pattern of time series data is considered as the contextual information to be integrated into SVDD for anomaly detection. The formulation of SVDD with contextual information maintains multiple discriminants which help in distinguishing the root causes of the anomalies. 3) In an attempt to further analyse a dataset for anomaly detection and interpretation, Convex Hull Data Description (CHDD) is developed for realising one-class classification together with data clustering. CHDD approximates the convex hull of a given dataset with the extreme points which constitute a dictionary of data representatives. According to the dictionary, CHDD is capable of representing and clustering all the normal data instances so that anomaly detection is realised with certain interpretation. 4) Besides better anomaly detection accuracy and interpretability, better solutions for anomaly detection over streaming data with evolving patterns are also researched. Under the framework of Reinforcement Learning (RL), a time series anomaly detector that is consistently trained to cope with the evolving patterns is designed. Due to the fact that the anomaly detector is trained with labeled time series, it avoids the cumbersome work of threshold setting and the uncertain definitions of anomalies in time series anomaly detection tasks.
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