Comparison of genetic liability for sleep traits among individuals with bipolar disorder I or II and control participants
Lewis, KJS; Richards, A; Karlsson, R; et al.Leonenko, G; Jones, SE; Jones, HJ; Gordon-Smith, K; Forty, L; Escott-Price, V; Owen, MJ; Weedon, MN; Jones, L; Craddock, N; Jones, I; Landén, M; O’Donovan, MC; Di Florio, A
Date: 21 November 2019
American Medical Association (AMA)
Importance Insomnia, hypersomnia, and an evening chronotype are common in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), but whether this reflects shared genetic liability is unclear. Stratifying by BD subtypes could elucidate this association and inform sleep and BD research. Objective To assess whether polygenic risk scores (PRSs) ...
Importance Insomnia, hypersomnia, and an evening chronotype are common in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), but whether this reflects shared genetic liability is unclear. Stratifying by BD subtypes could elucidate this association and inform sleep and BD research. Objective To assess whether polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for sleep traits are associated with BD subtypes I and II. Design, Setting, and Participants This case-control study was conducted in the United Kingdom and Sweden with participants with BD and control participants. Multinomial regression was used to assess whether PRSs for insomnia, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration, and chronotype are associated with BD subtypes compared with control participants. Affected individuals were recruited from the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Control participants were recruited from the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the UK Blood Service. Analyses were repeated in an independent Swedish sample from August 2018 to July 2019. All participants were of European ancestry. Exposures Standardized PRSs derived using alleles from genome-wide association studies of insomnia, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype. These were adjusted for the first 10 population principal components, genotyping platforms, and sex. Main Outcomes and Measures Association of PRSs with BD subtypes, determined by semistructured psychiatric interview and case notes. Results The main analysis included 4672 participants with BD (3132 female participants [67.0%]; 3404 with BD-I [72.9%]) and 5714 control participants (2812 female participants [49.2%]). Insomnia PRS was associated with increased risk of BD-II (relative risk [RR], 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07-1.21]; P = 8.26 × 10−5) but not BD-I (RR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.94-1.03]; P = .409) relative to control participants. Sleep-duration PRS was associated with BD-I (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.06-1.15]; P = 1.13 × 10−5) but not BD-II (RR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.93-1.06]; P = .818). Associations between (1) insomnia PRS and BD-II and (2) sleep-duration PRS and BD-I were replicated in the Swedish sample of 4366 individuals with BD (2697 female participants [61.8%]; 2627 with BD-I [60.2%]) and 6091 control participants (3767 female participants [61.8%]). Chronotype and daytime-sleepiness PRS were not associated with BD subtypes. Conclusions and Relevance Per this analysis, BD subtypes differ in genetic liability to insomnia and hypersomnia, providing further evidence that the distinction between BD-I and BD-II has genetic validity. This distinction will be crucial in selecting participants for future research on the role of sleep disturbance in BD.
Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License. © 2019 Lewis KJS et al. JAMA Psychiatry.