Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: Cumulative empirical evidence
Lumpkin, G. T.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has received substantial conceptual and empirical attention, representing one of the few areas in entrepreneurship research where a cumulative body of knowledge is developing. The time is therefore ripe to document, review, and evaluate the cumulative knowledge on the relationship between EO and business performance. Extending beyond qualitative assessment, we undertook a metaanalysis exploring the magnitude of the EO-performance relationship and assessed potential moderators affecting this relationship. Analyses of 53 samples from 51 studies with an N of 14,259 companies indicated that the correlation of EO with performance is moderately large (r =.242) and that this relationship is robust to different operationalizations of key constructs as well as cultural contexts. Internal and environmental moderators were identified, and results suggest that additional moderators should be assessed. Recommendations for future research are developed.
Author's post-print draft version. Final version published by Wiley-Blackwell; available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
Vol. 33, Issue 3, pp. 761 - 788