Graphene and functionalised graphene for flexible and optoelectric applications
Bointon, Thomas H.
Thesis or dissertation
University of Exeter
The landscape of consumer electronics has drastically changed over the last decade. Technological advances have led to the development of portable media devices, such as the iPod, smart phones and laptops. This has been achieved primarily through miniaturisation and using materials such as Lithium and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) to increase energy density in batteries and as transparent electrodes for light emitting displays respectively. However, ten years on there are now new consumer demands, which are dictating the direction of research and new products are under constant development. Graphene is a promising next-generation material that was discovered in 2004. It is composed of a two-dimensional lattice made only from carbon. The atoms are arranged in a two atom basis hexagonal crystal structure which forms a fundamental building block of all sp2 hybrid forms of carbon. The production of large area graphene has a high cost, due to the long growth times and the high temperatures required. This is relevant as graphene is not viable compared to other transparent conductors which are produced on industrial scales for a fraction of the cost of graphene growth. Furthermore, graphene has a high intrinsic resistivity (2KW/_) which is three orders of magnitude greater than the current industry standard ITO. This limits the size of the electrodes as there is dissipation of energy across the electrode leading to inefficiency. Furthermore a potential drop occurs across the electrode leading to a non-uniform light emission when the electrode is used in a light emitting display. I investigate alternative methods of large area graphene growth with the aim of reducing the manufacturing costs, while maintaining the quality required for graphene human interface devices. Building on this I develop new fabrication methods for the production of large-area graphene devices which are flexible and transparent and show the first all graphene touch sensor. Focusing on the reducing the high resistivity of graphene using FeCl3 intercalation, while maintaining high optical transmission, I show low resistivity achieved using this process for microscopic graphene flakes, large-area graphene grown on silicon carbide and large-area graphene grown by CVD. Furthermore, I explore the stability of FeCl3 intercalated graphene and a process to transfer a material to arbitrary flexible substrates.
Craciun, Monica F
PhD in Engineering
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