Enso extremes and diversity: Dynamics, teleconnections, and impacts
McPhaden, Michael J.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
American Meteorological Society
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Reason for embargo
In boreal spring of 2014, the tropical Pacific was primed for an El Niño, when most forecast agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology elevated their El Niño probability to more than 60%. A remarkable increase in warm water volume with a series of westerly wind bursts in boreal spring alerted the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experts to the possibility of a strong event. The mean climate, upon which ENSO evolved, varied on multi-decadal time scales, manifesting itself as a global-scale phenomenon in what is commonly known as the IPO or PDO.
Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science
Vol. 96 (11), pp. 1969 - 1972