Fair scores for ensemble forecasts
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Wiley for Royal Meteorological Society
The notion of fair scores for ensemble forecasts was introduced recently to reward ensembles whose members behave as though they and the verifying observation are sampled from the same distribution. In the case of forecasting binary outcomes, a characterization is given of a general class of fair scores for ensembles that are interpreted as random samples. This is also used to construct classes of fair scores for ensembles that forecast multi-category and continuous outcomes. The usual Brier, ranked probability, and continuous ranked probability scores for ensemble forecasts are shown to be unfair, while adjusted versions of these scores are shown to be fair. A definition of fairness is also proposed for ensembles whose members are interpreted as being dependent, and it is shown that fair scores exist only for some forms of dependence.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 140, pp. 1917 - 1923