Stratospheric aerosols from the Sarychev volcano eruption in the 2009 Arctic summer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
European Geosciences Union
This is the final version of the article. Available from the European Geosciences Union via the DOI in this record.
Aerosols from the Sarychev volcano eruption (Kuril Islands, northeast of Japan) were observed in the Arctic lower stratosphere a few days after the strongest SO2 injection which occurred on 15 and 16 June 2009. From the observations provided by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) an estimated 0.9 Tg of sulphur dioxide was injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The resultant stratospheric sulphate aerosols were detected from satellites by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) limb sounder and by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and from the surface by the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) lidar deployed at OHP (Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France). By the first week of July the aerosol plume had spread out over the entire Arctic region. The Sarychev-induced stratospheric aerosol over the Kiruna region (north of Sweden) was measured by the Stratospheric and Tropospheric Aerosol Counter (STAC) during eight balloon flights planned in August and September 2009. During this balloon campaign the Micro Radiomètre Ballon (MicroRADIBAL) and the Spectroscopie d'Absorption Lunaire pour l'Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON) remote-sensing instruments also observed these aerosols. Aerosol concentrations returned to near-background levels by spring 2010. The effective radius, the surface area density (SAD), the aerosol extinction, and the total sulphur mass from STAC in situ measurements are enhanced with mean values in the range 0.15-0.21 μm, 5.5-14.7 μm2 cm-3, 5.5-29.5 × 10-4 km-1, and 4.9-12.6 × 10-10 kg[S] kg-1[air], respectively, between 14 km and 18 km. The observed and modelled e-folding time of sulphate aerosols from the Sarychev eruption is around 70-80 days, a value much shorter than the 12-14 months calculated for aerosols from the 1991 eruption of Mt Pinatubo. The OSIRIS stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 750 nm is enhanced by a factor of 6, with a value of 0.02 in late July compared to 0.0035 before the eruption. The HadGEM2 and MIMOSA model outputs indicate that aerosol layers in polar region up to 14-15 km are largely modulated by stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes. The spatial extent of the Sarychev plume is well represented in the HadGEM2 model with lower altitudes of the plume being controlled by upper tropospheric troughs which displace the plume downward and upper altitudes around 18-20 km, in agreement with lidar observations. Good consistency is found between the HadGEM2 sulphur mass density and the value inferred from the STAC observations, with a maximum located about 1 km above the tropopause ranging from 1 to 2 × 10 -9 kg[S] kg-1[air], which is one order of magnitude higher than the background level. © Author(s) 2013.
The authors thank the CNES balloon launching team for successful operations and the Swedish Space Corporation at Esrange. The ETHER database (CNES-INSUCNRS) and the CNES “sous-direction Ballon” are partners of the project. The StraPolEt ´ e project has been funded by the French ´ “Agence Nationale de la Recherche” (ANR-BLAN08-1-31627), the “Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales” (CNES), and the “Institut ´ Polaire Paul-Emile Victor” (IPEV). The AEROWAVE (Aerosols, Water Vapor and Electricity) and the HALOHA (HALOgen in High Altitudes) projects have been funded by the recently created French CNES-INSU Balloon Committee (so-called CSTB). We are grateful to Slimane Bekki and David Cugniet for their constructive comments about the AER-UPMC 2-D model, to Marc-Antoine Drouin for his help about the MIMOSA model, and to the LPC2E technical team for this successful campaign. Jim Haywood and Andy Jones were supported by the Joint DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme (GA01101). IASI was developed and built under the responsibility of the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France). It is flown on board the Metop ´ satellites as part of the EUMETSAT Polar System. The IASI L1 data are received through the EUMETCast near-real-time data distribution service. L. Clarisse is a postdoctoral researcher with FRS-FNRS. We acknowledge the CALIOP team for acquiring and processing data as well as the ICARE team for providing and maintaining the computational facilities to store them. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), France (CNES), and Finland (Tekes). This study was supported by the French VOLTAIRE Labex (Laboratoire d’Excellence ANR-10-LABX-100-01) managed by the University of Orleans.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2013, Vol. 13, pp. 6533 - 6552