Pre-main-sequence isochrones - II. Revising star and planet formation time-scales
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Oxford University Press
This is the final version of the article. Available from Oxford University Press via the DOI in this record.
We have derived ages for 13 young (<30 Myr) star-forming regions and find that they are up to a factor of 2 older than the ages typically adopted in the literature. This result has wide-ranging implications, including that circumstellar discs survive longer (≃ 10–12 Myr) and that the average Class I lifetime is greater (≃1 Myr) than currently believed. For each star-forming region, we derived two ages from colour–magnitude diagrams. First, we fitted models of the evolution between the zero-age main sequence and terminal-age main sequence to derive a homogeneous set of main-sequence ages, distances and reddenings with statistically meaningful uncertainties. Our second age for each star-forming region was derived by fitting pre-main-sequence stars to new semi-empirical model isochrones. For the first time (for a set of clusters younger than 50 Myr), we find broad agreement between these two ages, and since these are derived from two distinct mass regimes that rely on different aspects of stellar physics, it gives us confidence in the new age scale. This agreement is largely due to our adoption of empirical colour–Teff relations and bolometric corrections for pre-main-sequence stars cooler than 4000 K. The revised ages for the star-forming regions in our sample are: ∼2 Myr for NGC 6611 (Eagle Nebula; M 16), IC 5146 (Cocoon Nebula), NGC 6530 (Lagoon Nebula; M 8) and NGC 2244 (Rosette Nebula); ∼6 Myr for σ Ori, Cep OB3b and IC 348; ≃10 Myr for λ Ori (Collinder 69); ≃11 Myr for NGC 2169; ≃12 Myr for NGC 2362; ≃13 Myr for NGC 7160; ≃14 Myr for χ Per (NGC 884); and ≃20 Myr for NGC 1960 (M 36).
CPMB is funded by a UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) studentship. SPL is supported by an RCUK fellowship. The authors would like to thank Charles D. H. Williams for maintaining the Xgrid facilities at the University of Exeter which were used to reduce the photometric data presented in this study. The authors thank Amelia Bayo for bringing to our attention the important work on the λ Ori region published in Bayo et al. (2011) and Bayo et al. (2012) which we overlooked in our original submission. The inclusion of these works does not change the results or conclusions of the paper. The authors also thank the referee for useful comments and constructive suggestions that have greatly improved this work. This research has made use of data obtained at the Isaac Newton Telescope which is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group (ING) in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Institutio de Astrofisica de Canarias. This research has also made use of archival data products from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation.
archiveprefix: arXiv primaryclass: astro-ph.SR keywords: techniques: photometric, stars: evolution, stars: formation, stars: fundamental parameters, Hertzsprung-Russell and colour-magnitude diagrams, stars: pre-main-sequence adsurl: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.434..806B adsnote: Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2013, Vol. 434, Issue 1, pp. 806 - 831