Development of super-ensemble techniques for ocean analyses: The Mediterranean Sea case
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
European Geosciences Union (EGU)
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
A super-ensemble methodology is proposed to improve the quality of short-term ocean analyses for sea surface temperature (SST) in the Mediterranean Sea. The methodology consists of a multiple linear regression technique applied to a multi-physics multi-model super-ensemble (MMSE) data set. This is a collection of different operational forecasting analyses together with ad hoc simulations, created by modifying selected numerical model parameterizations. A new linear regression algorithm based on empirical orthogonal function filtering techniques is shown to be efficient in preventing overfitting problems, although the best performance is achieved when a simple spatial filter is applied after the linear regression. Our results show that the MMSE methodology improves the ocean analysis SST estimates with respect to the best ensemble member (BEM) and that the performance is dependent on the selection of an unbiased operator and the length of training. The quality of the MMSE data set has the largest impact on the MMSE analysis root mean square error (RMSE) evaluated with respect to observed satellite SST. The MMSE analysis estimates are also affected by training period length, with the longest period leading to the smoothest estimates. Finally, lower RMSE analysis estimates result from the following: a 15-day training period, an overconfident MMSE data set (a subset with the higher-quality ensemble members) and the least-squares algorithm being filtered a posteriori.
This work was supported by the University of Bologna as part of the graduate programme in geophysics and by the MyOcean2 Project. The CMCC Gemina project funded J. Pistoia’s studies at the University of Exeter. Publication was supported from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research under the project RITMARE.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 16, pp. 1807 - 1819