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dc.contributor.authorHansen, J
dc.contributor.authorSato, M
dc.contributor.authorRuedy, R
dc.contributor.authorKharecha, P
dc.contributor.authorLacis, A
dc.contributor.authorMiller, R
dc.contributor.authorNazarenko, L
dc.contributor.authorLo, K
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, GA
dc.contributor.authorRussell, G
dc.contributor.authorAleinov, I
dc.contributor.authorBauer, S
dc.contributor.authorBaum, E
dc.contributor.authorCairns, B
dc.contributor.authorCanuto, V
dc.contributor.authorChandler, M
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Y
dc.contributor.authorCohen, A
dc.contributor.authorGenio, AD
dc.contributor.authorFaluvegi, G
dc.contributor.authorFleming, E
dc.contributor.authorFriend, A
dc.contributor.authorHall, T
dc.contributor.authorJackman, C
dc.contributor.authorJonas, J
dc.contributor.authorKelley, M
dc.contributor.authorKiang, NY
dc.contributor.authorKoch, D
dc.contributor.authorLabow, G
dc.contributor.authorLerner, J
dc.contributor.authorMenon, S
dc.contributor.authorNovakov, T
dc.contributor.authorOinas, V
dc.contributor.authorPerlwitz, J
dc.contributor.authorPerlwitz, J
dc.contributor.authorRind, D
dc.contributor.authorRomanou, A
dc.contributor.authorSchmunk, R
dc.contributor.authorShindell, D
dc.contributor.authorStone, P
dc.contributor.authorSun, S
dc.contributor.authorStreets, D
dc.contributor.authorTausnev, N
dc.contributor.authorThresher, D
dc.contributor.authorUnger, N
dc.contributor.authorYao, M
dc.contributor.authorZhang, S
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-14T11:39:12Z
dc.date.issued2007
dc.description.abstractWe carry out climate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS modelE driven by ten measured or estimated climate forcings. An ensemble of climate model runs is carried out for each forcing acting individually and for all forcing mechanisms acting together. We compare side-by-side simulated climate change for each forcing, all forcings, observations, unforced variability among model ensemble members, and, if available, observed variability. Discrepancies between observations and simulations with all forcings are due to model deficiencies, inaccurate or incomplete forcings, and imperfect observations. Although there are notable discrepancies between model and observations, the fidelity is sufficient to encourage use of the model for simulations of future climate change. By using a fixed well-documented model and accurately defining the 1880-2003 forcings, we aim to provide a benchmark against which the effect of improvements in the model, climate forcings, and observations can be tested. Principal model deficiencies include unrealistically weak tropical El Nino-like variability and a poor distribution of sea ice, with too much sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere and too little in the Southern Hemisphere. The greatest uncertainties in the forcings are the temporal and spatial variations of anthropogenic aerosols and their indirect effects on clouds.en_GB
dc.identifier.citationVol. 29, pp. 661 - 696en_GB
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10871/24402
dc.language.isoenen_GB
dc.publisherSpringer Verlag (Germany)en_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8en_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0610109v2en_GB
dc.titleClimate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS modelEen_GB
dc.typeArticleen_GB
dc.date.available2016-11-14T11:39:12Z
dc.identifier.issn0930-7575
dc.descriptionThis is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.en_GB
dc.identifier.journalClimate Dynamicsen_GB


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