A chemical model for the atmosphere of hot Jupiters
Astronomy and Astrophysics
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from EDP Sciences via the DOI in this record.
Our purpose is to release a chemical network, and the associated rate coefficients, developed for the temperature and pressure range relevant to hot Jupiters atmospheres. Using this network, we study the vertical atmospheric composition of the two hot Jupiters (HD209458b, HD189733b) with a model that includes photolyses and vertical mixing and we produce synthetic spectra. The chemical scheme is derived from applied combustion models that have been methodically validated over a range of temperatures and pressures typical of the atmospheric layers influencing the observations of hot Jupiters. We compare the predictions obtained from this scheme with equilibrium calculations, with different schemes available in the literature that contain N-bearing species and with previously published photochemical models. Compared to other chemical schemes that were not subjected to the same systematic validation, we find significant differences whenever non-equilibrium processes take place. The deviations from the equilibrium, and thus the sensitivity to the network, are more important for HD189733b, as we assume a cooler atmosphere than for HD209458b. We found that the abundances of NH3 and HCN can vary by two orders of magnitude depending on the network, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive experimental validation. A spectral feature of NH3 at 10.5$\mu$m is sensitive to these abundance variations and thus to the chemical scheme. Due to the influence of the kinetics, we recommend the use of a validated scheme to model the chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres. Our network is robust for temperatures within 300-2500K and pressures from 10mbar up to a few hundreds of bars, for species made of C,H,O,N. It is validated for species up to 2 carbon atoms and for the main nitrogen species.
We thank Ignasi Ribas for providing us the UV flux of ǫ Eridani, proxy of HD 189733 and Anthony M. Dean for providing us the list of rate coefficients from his book in an electronic form. F. S., O. V., E. H. and M. A. acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC Grant 209622: E3ARTHs).
Vol. 546, Article number: A43