Applicability of available geotechnical approaches and geomaterial constitutive models for foundation and anchor analysis of marine renewable energy arrays
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
© 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Reason for embargo
For Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) to become a viable alternative energy source, it must encompass large arrays of devices. Arrays may include 1000s of devices. The associated foundations or anchors may encounter a range of seafloor sediment types and geotechnical properties. Wave and tidal energy convertors induce unique loads on foundations and anchors that are different from other seafloor engineering applications. Thus, there is a need for a combination of advanced site analysis and performance assessment. Geotechnical engineering plays the vital role of ensuring that foundation and anchor systems perform successfully for MRE devices. Our paper reviews the unique frequency and magnitude of loading regimes experienced by MRE arrays. We examine potential loading conditions on the foundation-anchor systems. Loading regimes include environmental and system loads from single devices or arrays of devices. We present specific load examples from field data. We explore the applicable geotechnical approaches to address these conditions, including constitutive models that may or may not adequately capture the response of the seafloor sediments to the MRE loads. Partially to fully dynamic constitutive model formulations may be necessary to properly model sediment-fluid hydromechanical response to MRE loading. Spacing of full MRE arrays and spatial variability in sediment properties may require multiple foundation types.
J.E. Heath, R.P. Jensen, and J.D. Roberts were supported by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This work is an outgrowth of the D4.2 report on foundation-anchor analysis for MRE systems, which was written under the guidance of the Optimal Design Tools for Ocean Energy Arrays (DTOcean) project, a collaborative project funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development. S.D. Weller, J. Hardwick, and L. Johanning (University of Exeter) were supported by the DTOcean project. The authors would like to thank Fred Olsen Renewables for permitting us to use BOLT Lifesaver data in this paper. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 72, pp. 191 - 204