Differential gene regulation in the Ag nanoparticle and Ag(+)-induced silver stress response in Escherichia coli: a full transcriptomic profile
Taylor & Francis
We report the whole-transcriptome response of Escherichia coli bacteria to acute treatment with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or silver ions [Ag(I)] as silver nitrate using gene expression microarrays. In total, 188 genes were regulated by both silver treatments, 161 were up-regulated and 27 were down-regulated. Significant regulation was observed for heat shock response genes in line with protein denaturation associated with protein structure vulnerability indicating Ag(I)-labile -SH bonds. Disruption to iron-sulphur clusters led to the positive regulation of iron-sulphur assembly systems and the expression of genes for iron and sulphate homeostasis. Further, Ag ions induced a redox stress response associated with large (>600-fold) up-regulation of the E. coli soxS transcriptional regulator gene. Ag(I) is isoelectronic with Cu(I), and genes associated with copper homeostasis were positively regulated indicating Ag(I)-activation of copper signalling. Differential gene expression was observed for the silver nitrate and AgNP silver delivery. Nanoparticle delivery of Ag(I) induced the differential regulation of 379 genes; 309 genes were uniquely regulated by silver nanoparticles and 70 genes were uniquely regulated by silver nitrate. The differential silver nanoparticle-silver nitrate response indicates that the toxic effect of labile Ag(I) in the system depends upon the mechanism of delivery to the target cell.
JM would like to thank the BBSRC for a CASE studentship award with ENBL ltd.
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Taylor & Francis via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 8 supplement 1, pp. 177 - 184
Place of publication