Finding first foliation tangencies in the Lorenz system
SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Reason for embargo
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Classical studies of chaos in the well-known Lorenz system are based on reduction to the one-dimensional Lorenz map, which captures the full behavior of the dynamics of the chaotic Lorenz attractor. This reduction requires that the stable and unstable foliations on a particular Poincar e section are transverse locally near the chaotic Lorenz attractor. We study when this so-called foliation condition fails for the rst time and the classic Lorenz attractor becomes a quasi-attractor. This transition is characterized by the creation of tangencies between the stable and unstable foliations and the appearance of hooked horseshoes in the Poincar e return map. We consider how the three-dimensional phase space is organized by the global invariant manifolds of saddle equilibria and saddle periodic orbits | before and after the loss of the foliation condition. We compute these global objects as families of orbit segments, which are found by setting up a suitable two-point boundary value problem (BVP). We then formulate a multi-segment BVP to nd the rst tangency between the stable foliation and the intersection curves in the Poincar e section of the two-dimensional unstable manifold of a periodic orbit. It is a distinct advantage of our BVP set-up that we are able to detect and readily continue the locus of rst foliation tangency in any plane of two parameters as part of the overall bifurcation diagram. Our computations show that the region of existence of the classic Lorenz attractor is bounded in each parameter plane. It forms a slanted (unbounded) cone in the three-parameter space with a curve of terminal-point or T-point bifurcations on the locus of rst foliation tangency; we identify the tip of this cone as a codimension-three T-point-Hopf bifurcation point, where the curve of T-point bifurcations meets a surface of Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, we are able to nd other rst foliation tangencies for larger values of the parameters that are associated with additional T-point bifurcations: each tangency adds an extra twist to the central region of the quasi-attractor.
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