On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
European Geosciences Union (EGU) / Copernicus Publications
© Author(s) 2016. Open access. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Aerosol–cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (ω500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascent (ω500 < −25 hPa day−1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is close to that in subsidence regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascent are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm day−1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes compared to the uncertainty in its global mean values, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.
M. Wang acknowledged the support from the Jiangsu Province Specially-appointed professorship grant and the One Thousand Young Talents Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41575073). The contribution from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Decadal and Regional Climate Prediction using Earth System Models (EaSM program). H. Wang acknowledges support by the DOE Earth System Modeling program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. The ECHAM-HAMMOZ model is developed by a consortium composed of ETH Zurich, Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Forschungszentrum Jülich, University of Oxford, the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, and managed by the Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) at ETH Zurich. D. Neubauer gratefully acknowledges the support by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): J 3402-N29 (Erwin Schrödinger Fellowship Abroad). The Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) at ETH Zurich is acknowledged for providing technical and scientific support. This work was supported by a grant from the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) under project ID s431. D. G. Partridge would like to acknowledge support from the UK Natural Environment Research Council project ACID-PRUF (NE/I020148/1) as well as thanks to N. Bellouin for useful discussions during the course of this work. The development of GLOMAP-mode within HadGEM is part of the UKCA project, which is supported by both NERC and the Joint DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme (GA01101). We acknowledge use of the MONSooN system, a collaborative facility supplied under the Joint Weather and Climate Research Programme, a strategic partnership between the Met Office and the Natural Environment Research Council. P. Stier would like to acknowledge support from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC grant agreement no. FP7-280025.
This is the final version of the article. Available from EGU via the DOI in this record.
Vol. 16, pp. 2765 - 2783