The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia
de la Fuente, C
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science
The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyze 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after but not at the time of Yamnaya culture. We find no evidence of steppe ancestry in Bronze Age Anatolia from when Indo-European languages are attested there. Thus, in contrast to Europe, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya-related migrations had limited direct genetic impact in Asia.
The study was supported by the Lundbeck Foundation (EW), the Danish National Research Foundation (EW), and KU2016 (EW). Research at the Sanger Institute was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant 206194). RM was supported by an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 133-2017). JK was supported by the Human Frontiers Science Program (LT000402/2017). Botai fieldwork was supported by University of Exeter, Archeology Exploration Fund and Niobe Thompson, Clearwater Documentary. AB was supported by NIH grant 5T32GM007197-43. GK was funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond and European Research Council. MP was funded by Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), project number 276-70-028, IU was funded by the Higher education commission of Pakistan. Archaeological materials from Sholpan and Grigorievka were obtained with partial financial support of the budget program of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Grant financing of scientific research for 2018-2020” No. AP05133498 “Early Bronze Age of the Upper Irtysh”.
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The published version of the supplementary materials are at http://science.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2018/05/08/science.aar7711.DC1
Part of the additional supplementary materials for this article are in ORE at http://hdl.handle.net/10871/32792
Vol. 360 (6396), article eaar7711