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dc.contributor.authorLambert, F. Hugo
dc.contributor.authorWebb, Mark J.
dc.contributor.authorJoshi, Manoj M.
dc.date.accessioned2013-05-03T15:37:00Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.description.abstractPrevious work has demonstrated that observed and modeled climates show a near-time-invariant ratio of mean land to mean ocean surface temperature change under transient and equilibrium global warming. This study confirms this in a range of atmospheric models coupled to perturbed sea surface temperatures (SSTs), slab (thermodynamics only) oceans, and a fully coupled ocean. Away from equilibrium, it is found that the atmospheric processes that maintain the ratio cause a land-to-ocean heat transport anomaly that can be approximated using a two-box energy balance model. When climate is forced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, the heat transport anomaly moves heat from land to ocean, constraining the land to warm in step with the ocean surface, despite the small heat capacity of the land. The heat transport anomaly is strongly related to the top-of-atmosphere radiative flux imbalance, and hence it tends to a small value as equilibrium is approached. In contrast, when climate is forced by prescribing changes in SSTs, the heat transport anomaly replaces “missing” radiative forcing over land by moving heat from ocean to land, warming the land surface. The heat transport anomaly remains substantial in steady state. These results are consistent with earlier studies that found that both land and ocean surface temperature changes may be approximated as local responses to global mean radiative forcing. The modeled heat transport anomaly has large impacts on surface heat fluxes but small impacts on precipitation, circulation, and cloud radiative forcing compared with the impacts of surface temperature change. No substantial nonlinearities are found in these atmospheric variables when the effects of forcing and surface temperature change are added.en_GB
dc.identifier.citationVol. 24 (13), pp. 3239 - 3256en_GB
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/2011JCLI3893.1
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10871/8981
dc.language.isoenen_GB
dc.publisherAmerican Meteorological Societyen_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI3893.1en_GB
dc.subjectSea surface temperatureen_GB
dc.subjectLake effectsen_GB
dc.subjectRadiative forcingen_GB
dc.subjectCarbon dioxideen_GB
dc.subjectClimate sensitivityen_GB
dc.subjectCoupled modelsen_GB
dc.subjectTransporten_GB
dc.titleThe relationship between land-ocean surface temperature contrast and radiative forcingen_GB
dc.date.available2013-05-03T15:37:00Z
dc.identifier.issn0894-8755
dc.descriptionCopyright © 2011 American Meteorological Society (AMS). Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act September 2010 Page 2 or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as revised by P.L. 94-553) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a web site or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy, available on the AMS Web site located at (http://www.ametsoc.org/) or from the AMS at 617-227-2425 or copyrights@ametsoc.org.en_GB
dc.identifier.eissn1520-0442
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Climateen_GB


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