"How can my home, school or church ever be a military objective? Loss of protection by use, purpose or location"
It is a common and widely accepted proposition that towns, cities and other built-up residential areas pose a significant operational challenge when conducting hostilities. This is particularly true in the context of targeting, and specifically in relation to the identification of lawful targets. This paper considers some selected issues which modern warfare has brought to the forefront of the international debate. It consists of two parts. The first will look at the features of the urban landscape which are specifically relevant to combat operations. The second will provide a more comprehensive discussion of specific challenges in targeting overground and subterranean infrastructure.
16th Bruges Colloquium on International Humanitarian Law, 2015-10-15, 2015-10-16, Bruges, Belgium